Read the following references to further clarify the central ideas of this lesson. Look in other places as well as these; this is not an exhaustive list of the resources needed to answer the questions.

Father Hardon’s Catholic Catechism

Page 119 (First two paragraphs)
Page 457-481 (The Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist)

Father Hardon’s Question and Answer Catechism

#191 (Remedy for Original Sin)
#195 (Who is Jesus Christ?)
#204 (Why did God become man?)
#216 (Why did Jesus assume a human nature?)
#252 (How does Jesus act as our mediator with God?)
#1104 (What is a Sacrament?)
#1107 (What is a sensible sign?)
#1119 (Are the Sacraments necessary for salvation?)
#1212-1260 (The Real Presence)
#1261-1295 (The Mass)
#1295-1317 (Holy Communion)
#1324 (What did Christ mean by this?)
#1374-1377 (Sin, Confession and Holy Communion)
#1407 (Indulgences)
#1695-1696 (Mass in Latin)

Revised Basic Course Manual

Pages 38-39 (Debt of Sin)
Page 136 (The Real Presence: The Sacrament of Presence)
Page 138 (Second paragraph)
Page 139 (Substance and Accidents, Transubstantiation)
Page 141 (The Holy Mass: The Sacrament of Sacrifice)
Page 145 (The Institution Narrative and Double Consecration addition by Cardinal Burke in 2018.)
Page 145 (The Holy Eucharist: The Sacrament of Communion)
Page 147 (The Corporeal and Spiritual Effects of Holy Communion)
Pages 148-149 (An Increase in Sanctifying Grace)
Pages 150-151 (Freedom from Mortal Sin)


John 6:48-58

Catechism of the Catholic Church

#1211 (The Sacrament of Sacraments)
#1324 (The Source and Summit)
#1374 (A Substantial Presence)
#1395 (Preserves us from future mortal sins)
#1407 (The Heart and Summit)

Code of Canon Law (897-958)


Modern Catholic Dictionary Vocabulary –

Review the following terms in your Modern Catholic Dictionary reference book (or online version at – go to the bottom of the page, click on “Dictionary”).

Blessed Sacrament
Double Consecration
Eucharistic Elements
Holy Communion 
Hypostatic Union
Leavened Bread
Mystery of Faith (liturgy)
Real Presence
Sacramental Sign

Supplemental Vocabulary –

Read the following terms in the Supplemental Vocabulary Definitions.

Accidents, material and spiritual physical properties
Concelebration of Mass
Liturgy of Heaven
Necessity of the Sacrament of Holy Communion
Properties or Accidents
Valid Mass

Documents and Articles

See Article: The Holy Eucharist – The Triple Sacrament – The Triple Source of Grace, by Father John A. Hardon, S.J. link.

See Mediator Dei (Mediator between God and Men) Encyclical Letter by Pope Pius XII, 20 November 1947

“67. Christ the Lord, ‘Eternal Priest according to the order of Melchisedech’ (Psalm109:4), ‘loving His own who were of the world’ (John 13:1), ‘at the Last Supper, on the night He was betrayed, wishing to leave His beloved Spouse, the Church, a visible sacrifice such as the nature of men requires, that would re-present the bloody sacrifice offered once on the cross, and perpetuate its memory to the end of time, and whose salutary virtue might be applied in remitting those sins which we daily commit, . . . offered His Body and Blood under the species of bread and wine to God the Father, and under the same species allowed the Apostles, whom He at that time constituted the priests of the New Testament, to partake thereof; commanding them and their successors in the priesthood to make the same offering’ (Council of Trent, Sess. 22, c. 1).

“70. Likewise the victim is the same, namely, our divine Redeemer in His human nature with His true body and blood. The manner, however, in which Christ is offered is different. On the cross He completely offered Himself and all His sufferings to God, and the immolation of the victim was brought about by the bloody death, which He underwent of His free will. But on the altar, by reason of the glorified state of His human nature, ‘death shall have no more dominion over Him’ (Romans 6:9), and so the shedding of His Blood is impossible; still, according to the plan of divine wisdom, the sacrifice of our Redeemer is shown forth in an admirable manner by external signs which are the symbols of His death. For by the ‘transubstantiation’ of bread into the Body of Christ and of wine into His Blood, His Body and Blood are both really present: now the Eucharistic Species under which He is present symbolize the actual separation of His Body and Blood. Thus the commemorative representation of His death, which actually took place on Calvary, is repeated in every Sacrifice of the Altar, seeing that Jesus Christ is symbolically shown by separate symbols to be in a state of victimhood.”